Phenotypic Plasticity

Some organisms can change their appearance, physiology, and development in response to changes in the environment. This is called phenotypic plasticity, and some examples of phenotypically plastic organisms include the Junonia octavia butterflies described in my natural selection lecture, or water fleas that develop a spiny helmet in the presence …

Polyandry

The phalarope female stands in front of a smaller male and guards him from other wandering females until he can mate. When she lays her eggs, she leaves him and finds another male to mate with. The phalarope is one of the many animals (Gowaty, 1994) that exhibits polyandry – …

C4 Photosynthesis

C4 plants are plants that undergo a specialised extrametabolic pathway, the C4 cycle, in which CO2 is transferred from mesophyll cells to a special ring of bundle sheath cells by a pump. CO2 gets dissolved by carbonic anhydrase, forming bicarbonate, which is then fixed with phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase into C4 oxaloacetic …